D8 The Aerospace Design Process, Concept to Compliance

Module Leader; Dr Jim Scanlan (e-mail james.scanlan@uwe.ac.uk).

This site contains material and references for use on the IGDS module D8.


  • TRIZ 40 principles. Powerpoint slide illustrations of key 40 principles
  • TRIZ contradiction matrix spreadsheet
  • CODA spreadsheet matrix
  • Draft Schedule for the module.
  • Case Study Specification. This is the basis for the case study which will be undertaken throughout the week. It concerns the need for an unmanned Fire-Fighting aircraft which is capable of delivering fire-retardant fluid onto a fire-source. The specification is based on a hypothetical Australian Requirement.
    • Photographs of a number of water-bomber aircraft. This site contains links to other aerial firefighting resources.
    • Document giving an overview of the issues associated with Aerial Firefighting (Water-bombing).
    • Investigation into the Loss of Lockheed C130A Firefighting Tanker aircraft. This site gives and excellent context to the design case-study as it illustrates the hazards associated with the use of manned aircraft in and around fires.
    • Example specification for an Australian UAV for Fire Detection and Observation.
    • Comparison of the cost-effectiveness of some aircraft used for fire suppression. This is a document produced by the New Zealand Fire Protection department. It gives some excellent data on the use of helicopters for fire-bombing.
    • NASA White Paper on UAV Over-the-Horizon Disaster Management Demonstration Projects. This is a useful reference concerning the planned use of UAV's by the USA government an include the following applications;


         Flood mapping

         Hurricane tracking

         Tornado, other weather-related tracking

         Earthquake monitoring

         Volcanic eruption plume sampling

         Toxic plume, or other man-made chemical release

         Terrorist, military, or other social disaster

         Loss of communications / provide communications support

  • UAV documentation. These files contain reference material concerning the design, certification and operation of UAVs.
  • British Civil Airworthiness Requirements.
    • BCAR Section A. This is an extensive documents giving general requirements for the Design, Operation, Maintenance and Repair of Civil Aircraft. It is an excellent reference document.
    • CAP 719. Fundamental Human Factors Concepts. This detailed document is concerned primarily with safety of operation of aircraft. Human behaviour and performance are cited as causal factors in the majority of aircraft accidents and hence the CAA and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have put much emphasis on the study and understanding of Human Factors.
  • Costing Data and Documents
    • Historical and Future Trends in Aircraft Performance, Cost, and Emissions. This is an MSc Thesis by Joosung Joseph Lee (Massachusetts Institute of Technology September 2000). This document contains a wealth of data and includes; statistical analyses, models of the relationship between aircraft technology, DOC, and price, future trends in aircraft performance, cost, and emissions.
    • Spreadsheet giving cost and performance data on the CFM range of Turbofan Engines.
    • Spreadsheet giving cost and performance data on the GE range of Turbofan Engines.
    • Spreadsheet giving cost and performance data on the Pratt and Whitney range of Turbofan Engines. This also includes some cost data.
    • Spreadsheet giving cost and performance data on the Rolls-Royce range of Turbofan Engines.
    • Spreadsheet giving cost and performance data on a range of small (>2000 lb thrust) Turbofan Engines.
    • Spreadsheet giving a breakdown of the cost of the major elements of a typical aerospace product. It allows learning curves to be defined.
    • Simplified Aircraft Design Spreadsheet for Homebuilders by Daniel P. Raymer 2003. This is of some use for the design of fixed-wing aircraft of a conventional configuration. It is fairly self-explanatory and covers performance, sizing and weights. This is intended for use by designers of home-built aircraft.
    • Data-sheet giving performance data for a range of small jet powered civil aircraft.
  • Design Tools
    • Aircraft Optimisation PhD. (Michelle Rene Kirby Georgia Institute of Technology March 2001). This is an excellent reference document as it gives a holistic view of the aircraft design process. It includes material on multi-objective optimisation, Concurrent Engineering (CE), Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and illustrates this with and example case-study. There is a considerable amount of useful reference material in this document.
    • Multi Attribute decision analysis. This document shows how decision analysis techniques typical of aircraft design problems can be undertaken within spreadsheets.
    • Useful paper on how to conduct sensitivity analysis using spreadsheets. It is very important within a design study to understand where the major uncertainties exist and the effect of these on the project as a whole.
    • Reference web-site giving an exhaustive list of aircraft types and the airfoil section used. It also contains many useful links to other sources of aerodynamic design information.
    • NASA aerospace design study guidelines. This is a useful site as it contains what is effectively a "template" for undertaking a major aerospace design project. This could be use as a check-list of design activities.
    • UIUC Airfoil Coordinates Database. This gives and exhaustive list of airfoil types and their X-Y data.
    • Aircraft Design: Synthesis and Analysis. A simple java applet based design tool and web-based text-book on aircraft design. This was produced by Ilan Kroo of Stanford University.