13.0 previous exam papers (2004 and 2005)

2004    Exam paper 

Answer THREE questions, at least one from each section. Write each answer in a separate book.

Section A


1. With specific respect to the influenza viruses what is

meant by the terms "Antigenic Shift" and "Antigenic Drift"?


2. 'Describe the different structures and mode of action of bacterial toxins'.


3. Describe the molecular targets for the commonly used

anti-HIV therapeutics.


Section B


4. In malaria to what extent is an understanding of natural immunity of importance to approaches to development of  vaccines?


5. Explain how intermediate hosts are an obligatory part of the life cycle of some medically important protozoan and helminth infections.


6. Compare and contrast, with life cycles, the differences in transmission efficiency, behaviour and penetration of the larval stages  of two model parasites that you have studied in the laboratory: Fasciola hepatica (egg miracidia) and Hymenolepis diminuta (oncosphere hexacanth).





2005 Exam paper


Answer three questions: at least one question from Section A and one from Section B.


Section A


1. Describe the development of vaccines based on bacterial capsular polysaccharides.


2. We are due an influenza pandemic that may kill millions of

people worldwide. Explain the virological process by which

this may occur and how we can combat the disease.


3. Describe the different human Prion diseases and discuss

how Prions are transmitted.


Section B


4.How do protozoan parasites differ in their strategies for survival in the human body?


5. Compare and contrast the life cycles of two digenean platyhelminth  for example of the genera: Schistosoma and Fasciola.


6. What methods are appropriate for diagnosis of pathogen / parasite infections?  Include specific tests for some named diseases.







Dr. Clive Bennett 2006