Theoretical Biology:

Evolution of the immune response: 

Working with a colleague in China Dr. Liu Yan-Ming we have investigated the evolution of the immune response:


For our latest work Link to Pubmed  or for the abstract see below

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LIU, Y. M. (1995a). The phylogenesis of the immune system. Kexiie, 8, 47-51. (In Chinese).

LIU Y. M. (1995b). The primitive function of the immune system. Immunological Journal, 11, 61-63. (In Chinese).

LIU, Y. M. & BENNETT, C.E. (1997). Preliminary investigation of the origin and evolution of the immune molecules. Immunological Journal, 13, 2-4. (In Chinese)

Professor Liu Yan-Ming: Tainjing College of Traditional Medicine, Tianjing, Peoples Republic of China


Adaptive immunity

based on the dual recognition responses of αβT cells

Yan-Ming Liu, Jing Luo and Clive Bennett     Self Nonself. 2010 1(1): 62–66

It is proposed that the recently reported second recognition mode of αβT cells allows an explanation of the evolutionary origin of adaptive immunity. The dual modes provide the mechanism of development/differentiation of αβT cells under the control of immune response (Ir) genes by which a given T-cell can distinguish one kind of MHC molecule (as ‘self’ phase, learned from its positive selection) from others (as ‘nonself’ phase) involved in antigen recognition. It is thus possible to re-explain the ‘self’/‘nonself’ concept based on ‘homotype (phase)’/‘heterotype (phase)’ recognition at the level of a single clone of T cells. Hence adaptive immunity is explained here as being derived from functions that ensure synchronous ontogeny and prevent the paradoxical (or retrograde) development of vertebrates.




© Dr. Clive Bennett 1998-2013